Study on Investigation of System and Vocabulary between Javanese and Japanese Language

Javanese language is regional language used in mostly part of Java. Even each regional has different accent and various dialects, it is believed that it based from the same roof. The scope of study of Javanese language discussed in the paper refer to Javanese language spoken in east Java, Jogjakarta, and around Semarang.

Many people do not know that in general, Javanese and Japanese language are similar in degree of speech and some vocabularies. In Javanese, there are ngoko and krama, that used in daily language divided into many more types. Same as in Javanese, Japanese (in general) has similar 2 types degree of speech called futsu and keigo. We can assume that keigo in Japanese and krama in Javanese are similar in degree of speech, both of them are used in order to express a respectful to people who is older than the speaker. While, futsu and ngoko are similar used in either family talks or best friends community. In Japanese keigo is divided into 3 more types, there are : sonkeigo, kenjoogo, and teineigo.

Sonkeigo, equal to krama inggil in Javanese, is used in expressing a respectful to people who is older than the speaker or to people who has higher position in job position. Kenjoogo, equal to krama andhap in Javanese, is used in expressing a humble feeling to people. Then, teineigo in Japanese are more flexible than the other types. It is not related to ages nor higher position nor humble feelings, teineigo is general krama in Javanese that majored polite expression to people. Teineigo can be used in any occasion, whether from superior to subordinate and on the contrary.

keigo

Some vocabularies in Javanese have a similarity to Japanese’s vocabularies. It is caused by buddhism religious factor which in the basic way used Sansekerta as main language, so that there are many loan-words taken from Sansekerta into Javanese and Japanese. For example, the word “neraka” ヌラカ, often pronounced as neroko in Javanese (in English : hell) come from Sansekerta “naraka” ナラカ, then come into Japanese as “naraku” ナラク. Not only does Sansekerta influence Javanese’s vocabularies, but also does influence Indonesian vocabularies in a large amnount of words. In Indonesian language, the word “cendana” チュンダナ  based from the Sansekerta’s word “candana” チャンダナ and change into “sendan” せんだんin Japanese expression. Many experts and researcher in language considered that besides Sansekerta, Austronesian language also has a relationship to both Javanese and Japanese. In Javanese, the word “dog” in English, is “asu” アス, in old Japanese called “oso” オソ. The word “fish” in English become “iwak” イワッ in Javanese, in Japanese become “uo” ウオ. the research, that told Austronesian has a big relationship between Javanese and Japanese, is no evidence in archaelogy field and still being researched.

References:

Nise Samudra Sasanti, perbandingan futsu-keigo dan ngoko-krama verba bahasa Jepang dan bahasa Jawa, seminar linguistik UNESA, 2004
Sudjianto; Ahmad Dahidi, 2004, pengantar lingistik bahasa Jepang, Kesaint Blanc
ISHIZAWA Takeshi, bahasa Jawa dan Jepang, http://joewono.tripod.com/sastra-budaya-jawa/id2.html
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